Would you ever cling on outside of an airplane knowing that you definitely die if you fall from it? Well, you will. When you get a panic attack and your adrenaline levels rise, you do anything that you believe will help you survive.
This is the very experience Afghanistan citizens had in Kabul airport, Afghanistan on 14.08.2021. This living nightmare happened to Afghanistan citizens as the Taliban captured their capital city of Kabul after a chaotic war of 20 years.
In history, what happened to Afghanistan?
Running back to 1880, the state of Afghanistan was established after the Second Anglo-Afghan war. It has a history bound with India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan around the region.
Afghanistan’s history indicates a well-developed civilization during 2000BC.
The Indus Valley civilization has been expanded in the northern parts of the landmass.
The land of Afghans has located in between the silk road where the trades have happened between the Mediterranean and China.
The ancient civilians have spoken the Pashto language mixed with the Eastern Iranian language. In the ancient periods, Afganistan land was a part of Mahajanapadas including Gandhara and Kamboja.
And the religions that existed in Afghanistan were Surya worship, Paganism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism in different eras. The tallest Buddha statue in the world was also located in Bamiyan, Afghanistan in the 544AD.
With time, this land faced many invasions and had several empires such as Achaemenid, Alexander and the Seleucids, Mauryan, Greco Bactrian, Indo Greek, Indo Scythians, Indo Parthians, Kushans, Sassanian, etc…
During the 7th century, Islam was introduced to Afghanistan by Rashidun Caliphate Arabs. After the Islamic expansion, Afghanistan gradually turned into a complete Islamic state.
With the Islamic expansion, extremist Islamic groups such as the Taliban and Al Qaeda were originated in different Afganistan areas. These groups worked toward demolishing all the ancient cultural ruins in the land to build up a pure Islamic territory.
Origin of Afghanistan war
Afghanistan war was originated in the recent history of the 20th century. In the 1960s over 99% of Afghanistan’s citizens were Muslims. And in 1973 Mohammed Zahir Shah became the king of Afghanistan. In 1979, the USSR army invaded Afghanistan. The soviet-Afghan war began.
And the United States of America supported anti-soviet citizens of Afghanistan known as Mujahideen.
They provided weapons and billions of funds for these fighters. In 1989, the Soviet army withdrew from Afghanistan ending a 10-year war. This Soviet-Afghan war ended up murdering over 2 million Afghan citizens and displacing even more citizens who fled to neighboring countries in order to survive.
In 1992, a civil war began in Afghanistan. The Taliban was financially supported by Saudi Arabia. And they were physically supported by Pakistan Army. In 1996, they succeeded to seize their power in Kabul and establish an Islamic emirate.
Between 1996-2001, the Taliban group of extremist Islams established a strict interpretation of Sharia law. On 09.11.2001, Osama Bin Laden of the Taliban attacked the twin towers of New York, USA. Afterward the US president, George W. Bush demanded the Taliban to hand over Osama Bin Laden. The Taliban leader, Mullah Omr declined the demand of the US president.
With this event, the USA army invaded Afghanistan in 2001. With this invasion, the Taliban government was defeated. And a new Afghan president, Hamid Karzai was appointed. In the meantime, the Taliban was rearranged by its leader, Mullah Omar.
In 2003, they launched an insurgency against the government and ISAF. Then NATO gets involved in ISAF and assumed its leadership.
In 2006, the Taliban increased committing atrocities against civilians making it a living nightmare. In 2011, Osama Bin Laden was shot dead in Pakistan. Anyhow, this war has taken over a million peoples’ lives making Afghanistan one of the poorest and backward countries in the world.
India supported the rebuilding of Afghanistan and the Afghan national Agriculture Science and technology university was also built with funds from India.
The USA army kept fighting against the Taliban for 20 years and the US president, Donald Trump signed an act of peace between the two parties to stop the bloodshed. And in 2021, the US president, Joe Biden withdrew the US army from Afghanistan by ending the war of 20 years.
And the Taliban developed their military during this time and started fighting back after the US army’s withdrawal. The president of Afghanistan, Ashraf Ghani has fled from the country. And the Taliban seized their power in the capital city of Kabul again on 14.08.2021.